Toynbee Arnold J 1889-1975

Brittish historian, professor in greek history at the University of London.

Toynbee was inspired by Oswald Spenglers "The decline of the West" (1918-1922) .

His main work is A study of History (1-12, 1934-61).

Instead of Spenglers view that the decline of civilisations was predestined,
Toynbee saw that mankind could choose to respond or not respond to coming challenges.

Opposing Karl Marx, Toynbee saw history being formed by spiritual and not economical forces.

"In order to realize the final peace of the world, there is no way but to know that mankind forms a substantial family with one invisible parent."